The senate granted him the governorship of Transalpine Gaul and another legion (when the governor of that province died) because it feared that if it refused this the people would also grant this to Caesar. [10], The summary executions were an expedient to discourage further violence. According to Plutarch the rift between Pompey and Cato was exacerbated when Pompey fell seriously ill in Naples in 50 BC. [82], Early in 58 BC Clodius proposed four laws. On the day of the vote Bibulus forced his way through the crowd with his followers to the temple of Castor where Caesar was making his speech. Lucius Ninnius tried to rally popular support, but Clodius prevented him from taking any action. He also proposed a law to the plebeian council to authorise the comitia centuriata (the assembly of the soldiers) to vote on the matter. The Second Triumvirate in 43 BC was far more than a private agreement between three ambitious men working within a system, it had become far more than that. [84][85], The equites and two senators, Quintus Hortensius and Gaius Scribonius Curio, supported Cicero. They saw him as a potential challenge to the supremacy of the senate, which they largely controlled and which had been criticized for the summary executions during the Catilinarian conspiracy. The land commission in charge of the allocations would have twenty members so that it would not be dominated by a clique and so that many men could share the honour. Formally called the Triumvirate for Organizing the Republic (Latin: tresviri rei publicae constituendae), it was formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, and existed for two five-year terms, covering the period until 33 BC. An aggrieved Pompey ‘made friends with Caesar and promised under oath to support him for the consulship'. Plutarch also wrote that Caesar wrote to Crassus from Gaul, approving of his intentions and spurring him to war. On that day the law was passed without opposition, being supported even by people who had actively helped Cicero. Pompey was the greatest military leader of the time, having notably won the wars against Sertorius (80–72 BC), Mithridates (73–63 BC), and the Cilician Pirates (66 BC). It was seen by some as a violation of the right to a trial and led to charge of repressive governance, and gave the populares ammunition with which to challenge the notion of aristocratic dominance in politics and the prestige of the senate. [29] In both The Life of Cato and The Life of Pompey he wrote that after the agrarian bill was defeated, the hard pressed Pompey resorted to seeking the support of the plebeian tribunes and young adventurers, the worst of whom was Publius Clodius Pulcher (see below). In the writings of Suetonius and Plutarch and in some letters and a speech of Cicero, we find clues about both what the interests of Crassus may have been, and indications that Crassus and Pompey might have been less irreconcilable than their portrayals suggest and that the three men of the triumvirate had collaborated before. He did not expect a conviction, as Milo had many powerful allies, including Cicero and Pompey. He built his political career as a military commander. [90] Pompey got Ninnius to work on Cicero's recall by introducing a motion in Cicero's favour in the senate and opposing Clodius ‘at every point’. The optimates were also weary of the personal political clout of Pompey. The Republic was in dire straits. Attempts to introduce such agrarian laws since then were defeated by the optimates. Ancient sources mention what brought Pompey into the alliance, but are silent on what interests might have brought Crassus into the fold. Crassus and Pompey shared a consulship in 70 BC. Calpurnius Piso advised Cicero that leaving Rome was the only way for him to be safe, at which Cicero took offence. They saw a politically strong man as a potential tyrant who might overthrow the republic. The latter two earned him the award of a consulship in 70 BC even though he was below the age of eligibility to this office and he had not climbed the cursus honorum, the political career ladder traditionally required to reach the consulship. An alliance of Julius Caesar, Pompey (Pompeius Magnus), and Marcus Licinius Crassus ruled Rome from 60 BCE to 54 BCE. Crassus replied that he would if it was in the interest of the city, but otherwise he would desist. The opinion was that he was killed by those who had hired him. [54] Plutarch, who had a pro-aristocratic slant, thought that this law was not becoming of a consul, but for a most radical plebeian tribune. [39] This was a reference to the repeal of laws introduced by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 81 BC that had emasculated the power of the plebeian tribunes, by banning it from presenting bills to the vote of the plebeian council and from vetoing the actions of the officers of state and the senatus consulta. In 54 BC, as Caesar continued his campaigns in Gaul and Crassus undertook his campaign against the Parthians, Pompey was the only member of the triumvirate left in Rome. Caesar, who ran public affairs on his own, did not make any further investigations into this affair. However, Oktavian managed to come into an agreement with Mark Anthony and some guy named Mark Lepid who also owned legions and they created the Second Triumvirate, the first one being Caesar, Crassus and Pomepeius. He also married the daughter of Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus, one for the consuls elected for the next year (58 BC). Appian noted that Caesar did not convene it again for the rest of the year. He stayed at home and conferred about how to appease the senate and the nobility. Cassius Dio thought that the aim of these laws was to gain the favour of the people, the equites and the senate before moving to crush the influential Cicero. Since these tribunes were the representatives of the majority of the citizens, the people were unhappy with this. In 66 BC Catiline, the leader of the plot, presented his candidacy for the consulship, but he was charged with extortion and his candidacy was disallowed because he announced it too late. [42] Plutarch did not mention these episodes in his Life of Caesar. [80] Later in the year, Cicero wrote that Metellus Celer was ‘offering Clodius ‘a splendid opposition’. Therefore, he worked on putting the officials of the year under his obligation. It also challenged the power the nobiles (the aristocracy) exerted over Roman politics through the senate, which was the body that represented its interests. The origin of the process that led to Caesar seeking the alliance with Pompey and Crassus traces back to the Second Catilinarian conspiracy, which occurred three years earlier in 63 BC when Marcus Tullius Cicero was one of the two consuls. The political power of Pompey—who spent half of his career up to 63 BC fighting outside Rome—lay outside the conservative aristocratic circles of the optimates. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. As a result of this, he went to Greece. He told them that by concentrating their united strength on him, they could succeed in changing the form of government. As mentioned in the previous section, Plutarch wrote that Pompey had already allied with Clodius when his attempt to have the acts for his settlements in the east failed before the creation of the triumvirate. Julius Caesar opposed this measure. From then on Rome was ruled by an Emperor. The three men ruled until 54 BCE. [31], In Cassius Dio's account Caesar, who was governor in Hispania in 60 BC, considered his governorship as stepping-stone to the consulship. Cato warned Pompey about Caesar's manoeuvres to increase his power by using the money he made from the spoils of war to extend is patronage in Rome and urged him to counter Caesar. [16], In 62 BC Pompey returned to Italy after winning the Third Mithridatic War against Pontus and Armenia (in present-day eastern Turkey) and annexing Syria. Instead he brought forward the two most influential men in Rome, Pompey and Crassus, now private citizens, who both declared their support for the law. Pompey married Cornelia, a daughter of Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio. Crassus had co-operated with Lucullus in this matter. When he tried to make a speech he and his followers were pushed down the steps. However, this measure, an unprecedented assertion of senatorial power over the life and death of Roman citizens, backfired for the optimates. This celebration spread throughout Italy, as he was feted in towns through which he traveled on his way back to Rome. Cato pushed through the crowd and tried to make a speech, but was lifted up and carried away by Caesar's supporters. Caesar advised Cicero to leave Rome because his life was in danger and offered him a post as one of his lieutenants in Gaul so that his departure would not be dishonourable. Cicero noted that in 60 BC Crassus advocated for the equites and induced them to demand that the senate annul some contracts they had taken up in the Roman province of Asia (in today's western Turkey) at an excessive price. According to Appian, it is at this point that Bibulus withdrew from public business and did not go out of his house for the rest of his term of office. Second Triumvirate First Triumvirate First Triumphant Second Triumphant. - What about Roman citizens? The publicani had overextended themselves and fell into debt. There were suspicions that he was lying about Cicero and Lucullus as well and that this was a ploy by Caesar and Pompey to discredit the optimates. The alliance was cemented with the marriage of Pompey with Caesar's daughter Julia in 59 BC. [109], In 54 BC, as Caesar continued his campaigns in Gaul and Crassus undertook his campaign against the Parthians, Pompey was the only member of the triumvirate left in Rome. The dispute came close to violence; Nepos had armed some of his men. Sulla had done this because these tribunes had challenged the supremacy of the patrician-controlled senate and he wanted to strengthen the power of the latter. [106][107], Pompey and Crassus conducted the levy for their campaigns in their provinces, which created discontent. It could be argued that the formation of the first triumvirate was the result of the marginalisation of an enemy (Caesar) and an outsider (Pompey) and the rebuttal of interests associated with Crassus by the optimates who held sway in the senate. With bribery and corruption rampant throughout the Republic, Cato, who was elected praetor for 54 BC, got the senate to decree that elected officials submit their accounts to a court for scrutiny of their expenditures for electoral canvassing. The senators prevented him from entering and he was nearly lynched. Caesar didn't press the matter, thinking that he could celebrate greater exploits if he was elected consul, and so entered the city to canvass for office. The consuls stepped in with a large and intimidating bodyguard, called a meeting and passed the measure in favour of Caesar. Plutarch regarded this as having been dull and uneventful because it was marred by continuous disagreement between the two men. The Optimates were an anti-reform conservative faction that favoured the nobles, and also wanted to limit the power of the plebeian tribunes (the representatives of the plebeians) and the Plebeian Council (the assembly of the plebeians) and strengthen the power of the senate. The next day Caesar brought him to the rosta (a platform for public speeches), where Vettius did not mention Curio, implicating other men instead. The first was an informal arrangement between Julius Caesar, Marcus Licinius Crassus, and Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey). Pompey advised him that to leave would be an act of desertion and that he should remain in Rome, defend himself and challenge Clodius, who would be rendered ineffective in the face of Pompey and Cicero's combined opposition. However, the others objected and while they were arguing, Crassus left the city. Jun 2, 2013 - Explore Magistra Michaud's board "Second Triumvirate", followed by 1000 people on Pinterest. Besides resorting to bribery, they promoted factional violence, which Plutarch saw as a civil war. [44] Hence there may have been a connection between Crassus' motion and Caesar's ambition. In 66 BC the Manilian law handed the command of the last phase of the Third Mithridatic War over to Pompey, who brought it to a victorious conclusion. Caesar, Pompey and Crassus agreed on the consulship of the latter two and the extension of Caesar's governorship. The law would distribute public and private land to all citizens instead of just Pompey's veterans and would do so without any expense for the city or any loss for the optimates. As praefectus annonae Pompey sent agents and friends to various places and sailed to Sardinia, Sicily and the Roman province of Africa (the breadbaskets of the Roman empire) to collect grain. Pompey was also seen as being partial in the conduct of some trials. The Second Triumvirate differed from the first insofar as it was a legal entity explicitly endorsed by the Senate, not a private agreement among strongmen. This was when Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, two of Caesar's lieutenants, were defeated in Gaul by Ambiorix in 54 BC. In his version, instead, Pompey and Crassus agreed to stand for the consulship between themselves as a counterpoise to Caesar. Titus Annius Milo, another plebeian tribune, presented the measure to the plebeian council and Publius Cornelius Lentulus Spinther, one of the consuls for 57 BC, provided support in the senate partly as a favour to Pompey and partly because of his enmity towards Clodius. Therefore, Crassus and Pompey extended Caesar's command in Gaul for three years. Aulus Gabinius was a friend of his and Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus was amiable and a kin of Caesar. Aulus Gabinius barred the equites from accessing the senate, drove one of the more persistent out of the city, and rebuked Quintus Hortensius and Gaius Curio. The state auctioned off the contracts for both suppliers and tax collectors to private firms, which had to pay for them in advance. So successful was this venture that the markets were filled and there was also enough to supply foreign peoples. PLAY. Plutarch noted that others said that it was a device by Lentulus Spinther to confine Pompey to an office so that Spinther would be sent instead to Egypt to help Ptolemy XII of Egypt put down a rebellion. The senate met at the house of Calpurnius Bibulus because it had not been convened, and decided that Bibulus was to oppose the law so that it would look that the senate was overcome by force, rather than its own inaction. He left Hispania in a hurry, even before his successor arrived, to get to Rome in time for the elections. "[34] The opposition of the optimates to the acts of his settlements in the east and the agrarian bill he sponsored were not just due to jealousy as suggested by Appian. He also wrote that the allocations concerned land in the plain of Stella (a relatively remote area on the eastern Campanian border) that had been made public in by-gone days, and other public lands in Campania that had not been allotted but were under lease. Before you learn about the First Triumvirate, it's a good idea to understand what the word 'triumvirate' means in the first place. Lucius Domitius was now a candidate for the consulship and openly threatened to take up arms against him. Therefore, Caesar was willing to support Pompey because, although the latter was not a popularis, he was not an optimate either, making him a potential ally. According to Appian, in 60 BC Caesar came back from his governorship in Hispania (Spain and Portugal) and was awarded a triumph for his victories there. [7] One of the conspirators, Gaius Manlius, assembled an army in Etruria and civil unrest was prepared in various parts of Italy. The latter embarked into an expedition against the Parthians to match Caesar's victories in Gaul, but died in the disastrous defeat of Carrhae in 53 BC. Calpurnius Bibulus just said that he would not tolerate any innovations during his year of office. [118] The following year the two men were fighting each other in the Great Roman Civil War. Formally called the Triumvirate for Organizing the Republic (Latin: tresviri rei publicae constituendae),[2] it was formed on 27 November 43 BC with the enactment of the Lex Titia, and existed for two five-year terms, covering the period until 33 BC. To some the Roman citizenry was falling victim to moral decay. There are indications that Caesar and Crassus may have had significant political links prior to the triumvirate. [99], Cassius Dio, who wrote the most detailed account of the period, did not mention the Luca conference. To attain the consulship Caesar needed the support of Pompey and Crassus who, besides being the two most influential men in Rome, did not belong to the optimates and were thus likely to be politically marginalised as well. Pompey was away commanding the final phase of the Third Mithridatic War (73–63 BC) in the east. The senate was also attacked on the ground that it did not have the right to condemn any citizens without a trial before the people. [51] It is likely that Crassus also saw the alliance with Pompey to ensure Caesar's consulship as a means to pass a measure to relieve publicani in debt. There was a lot of wrangling in the senate and the senators left the session. His version is also the only one that mentions the woods and pastures. Caesar came to the point of having him dragged out of the senate house and arrested. However, Vettius was killed in prison during the night. Pompey did not contest Cato's proposal, which gave rise to suspicions about his real feelings towards Caesar. It made Pompey arrogant, incautious and contemptuous of Caesar's power. Crassus had shown some support through his son, but he sided with the people. Instead, he harangued the people and proposed his bills to the plebeian council. [59], Appian wrote that Vettius, a plebeian, ran to the forum with a drawn dagger to kill Caesar and Pompey. The most controversial measure Caesar introduced was an agrarian bill to allot plots of land to the landless poor for farming, which encountered the traditional conservative opposition. The senators kept delaying the vote. Although he won the war against Spartacus (73–71 BC), Crassus was mostly known for his fabulous wealth, which he acquired through intense land speculation. Appian, The Civil Wars,, 2014; Cassius Dio, Roman History, Vol. First & Second Triumvirate Terms. In Cassius Dio's words he "understood how to dance better than to transact any business. Question|Asked by kathy2020. In another passage Cassius Dio wrote that after the trial Clodius hated the optimates. Roman political order was in chaos. [66][67][68], Caesar proceeded to pass a number of laws without opposition. The decree was passed. tman1045. In order to bypass these constitutional obstacles, Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus forged a secret alliance in which they promised to use their respective influence to help each other. Caesar then improved relations between Crassus and Pompey and ‘these three most powerful men pooled their interests.’ Appian also noted that Marcus Terentius Varro wrote a book about this alliance called Tricaranus (the three-headed monster). Then he proposed a law that banned officials from performing augury (the divination of the omens of the gods) on the day of the vote by the popular assemblies, with the aim of preventing votes from being delayed. He raised three legions in his native Picenum (in central Italy) to support Lucius Cornelius Sulla in retaking Rome, which had been seized by the supporters of Gaius Marius prior to Sulla's second civil war (83–82 BC). Even though no optimate spoke against it, no one expressed approval. Plutarch mentioned Cato's encouragement and the murder of the slave in The Life of Pompey as well. According to Cassius Dio, who held that Crassus and Pompey wanted to counter Caesar's power, many people were angry about this, especially Caesar's supporters, who felt that Pompey and Crassus wanted to restrict Caesar's power and remove him from his governorship. Plutarch wrote that when Caesar was allocated the governorship of the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior for 60 BC he was in debt and his creditors prevented him from going to his province. Spell. Each act should be scrutinised, and the senators should ratify those that suited the senate. The character of the acts was not known. They would hold the command there for five years. He was unable to achieve anything through the consuls and felt that Caesar no longer needed him. Suetonius wrote that Caesar was suspended by a final decree. Senatus consultum ultimum in modern terminology, senatus consultum de res publica defendenda, (decree of the Senate about defending the Republic) in the terminology used by the Romans. Cato, who in that year was a plebeian tribune, called people from the forum into the senate house because voting was not allowed in the presence of non-senators. [52], Appian wrote that the law provided for distribution of public land that was leased to generate public revenues in Campania, especially around Capua, to citizens who had at least three children, and that this included 20,000 men. When they announced their candidacies everyone withdrew theirs, but Cato encouraged Lucius Domitius to proceed with his. Cassius Dio noted that the equites often had asked for a relief measure to no avail because of opposition by the senate and, in particular, by Cato. First to fall was Lepidus. He used this to attack both his followers and Pompey, inciting his supporters to taunt Pompey in the assemblies, which the latter was powerless to stop. [38] Plutarch also wrote that Pompey gave the people back their tribunate. He met Pompey and Crassus and agreed that the two of them would stand for the consulship and that he would support them by sending soldiers to Rome to vote for them. The Second Triumvirate years were filled with a variety of battles between the three men. The expression is mostly used to describe the First Triumvirate (60 BCE; Pompey the Great, Crassus, and Julius Caesar ) and Second Triumvirate (43 BCE; Marc Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian ). In Cassius Dio's opinion, Caesar tried to appear to promote the interests of the optimates as well as those of the people, and said that he would not introduce his land reform if they did not agree with it. The consuls said that there would not be any elections that year and that they would appoint an interrex to preside over the elections in the next year so that they would have to seek election in accordance with the law. Those who looked on the power of Pompey with suspicion made Crassus and Cato the champions of the senatorial party when Lucullus declined the leadership. The Second Triumvirate was the political alliance which ruled the Roman Republic from 43 to 33 BC, consisting of Gaius Octavius, Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus.Octavian was the adopted son and sole heir of Julius Caesar; Antony was Caesar's right-hand man and a veteran of … [45] Plutarch thought that Crassus did this because he needed Caesar for his political campaign against Pompey. Appian wrote that Cato said that Rome had become a mere matrimonial agency. [8][9] This was done because it was feared that the arrested men might be freed by other plotters. He also said that he had warned Pompey about the danger of plots. In Roman history, the word is used to refer to two groups of three men who took over the Roman government when they became powerful enough. The tribunes then tried to annul levies and rescind the vote for the proposed campaigns. [13] Tatum maintains that Nepos leaving the city even though plebeian tribunes were not allowed to do so was 'a gesture demonstrating the senate's violation of the tribunate. Soon after, a second triumvirate formed. [100], In the Life of Crassus, Plutarch wrote that in Rome there were reports about the two men's meeting with Caesar. The death of Crassus ended the Triumvirate, and left Caesar and Pompey facing each other; their relationship had already degraded after the death of Julia in 54 BC. There are several versions of how the alliance came about in the sources. He courted Crassus and Pompey so skilfully that he won them over, even though they were still hostile to each other, had their political clubs and ‘each opposed everything that he saw the other wished’. 19–20, Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Live of Caesar, 13.1–2, Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Cato Minor, 31.2, 4, The Life of Pompey, 46.4, 47.1, Plutarch, Parallel Lives, The Life of Caesar, 13.3, Suetonius, The Twelve Caesars, Julius Caesar, 19.2, Mitchell, T., Cicero, Pompey and the rise of the First Triumvirate, Traditio, Vol. Cassius Dio wrote that this ended the episode. However, the Second suffered the same fate as the First: Internal bickering and jealousy led to its weakening and collapse. Caesar believed that Clodius owed him a favour in return for not testifying against him when he was tried for sacrilege three years earlier (see above). Unlike the earlier First Triumvirate (between Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus), the Second Triumvir… A crucial element in the defeat of the bill sponsored by Pompey was the fact what the optimates had a strong consul in Quintus Caecilius Metellus Celer who vehemently and successfully resisted its enactment, while the consul sponsored by Pompey, Lucius Afranius, was ineffective. The next day the people demonstrated in favour of his reinstatement and were becoming riotous, but Caesar "held them in check." Clodius silenced Calpurnius Bibulus when he wanted to make a speech on the last day of his consulship in 59 BC and also attacked Cicero. Plutarch, Lives of the noble Grecians and Romans (Complete and Unabridged), Benediction Classics, 2015. The following civil war eventually led to Caesar's victory over Pompey at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and the latter's assassination in Ptolemaic Egypt where he fled after the battle. [30] In The Life of Caesar, he wrote that Caesar started his policy to reconcile Pompey and Crassus soon after he entered the city because they were the most influential men. The statesman, philosopher and poet Marcus Tillius Cicero had even exposed a conspiracy led by the prominent senator Lucius Sergius Catiline to overthrow the Roman leadership. He was engaged in battle and defeated. [102] In The Life of Pompey, Plutarch wrote the laws proposed by Trebonius were in accordance with the agreement made at Luca. [111][112] Plutarch wrote that Caesar felt that this was the end of his good relationship with Pompey. Although Rome had expanded far beyond central Italy, its political institutions—established when Rome was just one more small city-state among others—failed to keep pace. However, Clodius was a patrician and the plebeian tribunate was exclusively for plebeians. [81] Cassius Dio, instead, wrote that in that year Clodius actually got his transitio ad plebem and immediately sought the tribunate. He then headed for Syria and invaded Parthia. [71][72][73][74], Cassius Dio wrote that Caesar secretly set Publius Clodius Pulcher against Cicero, whom he considered a dangerous enemy, because of his suspicions about the Vettius affair. "[114] Seneca wrote that with regard to Caesar, Pompey "would ill endure that anyone besides himself should become a great power in the state, and one who was likely to place a check upon his advancement, which he had regarded as onerous even when each gained by the other's rise: yet within three days' time he resumed his duties as general, and conquered his grief [for the death of his wife] as quickly as he was wont to conquer everything else.