In an interview with India Today, he expressed his feelings regarding this, “Well, that's what the world says (that I am the father of fibre optics), but the Nobel committee has its own decision. I don't think there should be any controversy about it. Al-Haytham also worked on analytical geometry and the beginnings of the link between algebra and geometry. As he claimed to be able to regulate the flooding of the Nile, he was invited to by Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim in order to realise a hydraulic project at Aswan. )[40]:Note 2, Among his students were Sorkhab (Sohrab), a Persian from Semnan, and Abu al-Wafa Mubashir ibn Fatek, an Egyptian prince. [106], In his Al-Shukūk ‛alā Batlamyūs, variously translated as Doubts Concerning Ptolemy or Aporias against Ptolemy, published at some time between 1025 and 1028, Alhazen criticized Ptolemy's Almagest, Planetary Hypotheses, and Optics, pointing out various contradictions he found in these works, particularly in astronomy. The suggestion of mechanical models for the Earth centred Ptolemaic model "greatly contributed to the eventual triumph of the Ptolemaic system among the Christians of the West". [43] (A copy of Apollonius' Conics, written in Ibn al-Haytham's own handwriting exists in Aya Sofya: (MS Aya Sofya 2762, 307 fob., dated Safar 415 a.h. Most of his works are now lost, but more than 50 of them have survived to some extent. Works by Alhazen on geometric subjects were discovered in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris in 1834 by E. A. Sedillot. Abu 'Ali Al-Hasan bin Al-Haytham (965-1040 C.E.) [88] Other solutions were discovered in 1989, by Harald Riede[89] and in 1997 by the Oxford mathematician Peter M. [118], Alhazen solved problems involving congruences using what is now called Wilson's theorem. [87] An algebraic solution to the problem was finally found in 1965 by Jack M. Elkin, an actuarian. Ibn al Haytham Alhazen was an astronomer, Physicist and Mathematician in the Golden days of Muslims. Alhazen argued against Ptolemy's refraction theory, and defined the problem in terms of perceived, rather than real, enlargement. Following on from his Doubts on Ptolemy, Alhazen described a new, geometry-based planetary model, describing the motions of the planets in terms of spherical geometry, infinitesimal geometry and trigonometry. It is stationary in its [the world's] middle, fixed in it and not moving in any direction nor moving with any of the varieties of motion, but always at rest. Over forty years previously, Jacob Bronowski presented Alhazen's work in a similar television documentary (and the corresponding book), The Ascent of Man. Narinder Singh Kapany was born in the small town of Moga, Punjab on October 31, 1926. An aspect associated with Alhazen's optical research is related to systemic and methodological reliance on experimentation (i'tibar)(Arabic: إعتبار) and controlled testing in his scientific inquiries. He investigated the properties of luminance, the rainbow, eclipses, twilight, and moonlight. The obvious answer to the problem of multiple rays and the eye was in the choice of the perpendicular ray, since only one such ray from each point on the surface of the object could penetrate the eye. Alhazen continued to live in Cairo, in the neighborhood of the famous University of al-Azhar, and lived from the proceeds of his literary production[47] until his death in c. What Alhazen needed was for each point on an object to correspond to one point only on the eye. [104], The book is a non-technical explanation of Ptolemy's Almagest, which was eventually translated into Hebrew and Latin in the 13th and 14th centuries and subsequently had an influence on astronomers such as Georg von Peuerbach[105] during the European Middle Ages and Renaissance. The term fibre optics was coined by Singh Kapany in 1956. One of the Famous Scientist is Ibn al Haytham-father of optics. Ḥasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen[15] /ælˈhæzən/;[16] full name Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم; c. 965 – c. 1040) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age. After he proved unable to fulfill this task as well, he contracted the ire of the caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah,[44] and is said to have been forced into hiding until the caliph's death in 1021, after which his confiscated possessions were returned to him. [2][5][123][124] However, Peter Hodgeson instead indentifies him with the Mu'tazilite school. Here he worked to get his Ph.D in the field of optics, which he received in the year 1955. He completed his graduation at Agra University and post his graduate studies, served as an Indian Ordnance Factories Services (IOFS) officer. Roshdi Rashed, Infinitesimal Mathematics, vols. Aristotle had discussed the basic principle behind it in his Problems, but Alhazen's work also contained the first clear description, outside of China, of camera obscura in the areas of the Middle East, Europe, Africa and India. It is known that Prof Kao started work in this field many years after me. If, therefore, we confine our interest only to the history of physics, there is a long period of over twelve hundred years during which the Golden Age of Greece gave way to the era of Muslim Scholasticism, and the experimental spirit of the noblest physicist of Antiquity lived again in the Arab Scholar from Basra.[148]. In all, A. [68] In general, Alhazen built on and expanded the optics of Ptolemy. He could find the integral formula for any polynomial without having developed a general formula.[120]. [42], Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) was born c. 965 to an Arab[22][18] family in Basra, Iraq, The perceived size of an object of constant angular size varies with its perceived distance. [58] His later argument that refracted rays would be perceived as if perpendicular does not seem persuasive. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSabra2008 (, Baker, David B. [17][18][19][20][21][22] Referred to as "the father of modern optics",[23][24] he made significant contributions to the principles of optics and visual perception in particular. He was voiced by Alfred Molina in the episode. [94], Sudanese psychologist Omar Khaleefa has argued that Alhazen should be considered the founder of experimental psychology, for his pioneering work on the psychology of visual perception and optical illusions. He held a position with the title vizier in his native Basra, and made a name for himself for his knowledge of applied mathematics. The second theory, the intromission theory supported by Aristotle and his followers, had physical forms entering the eye from an object. How do we use it? In his On the Configuration of the World Alhazen presented a detailed description of the physical structure of the earth: The earth as a whole is a round sphere whose center is the center of the world. For other uses, see. His findings solidified the importance in the history of the camera obscura.[66]. [60], Alhazen showed through experiment that light travels in straight lines, and carried out various experiments with lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection. Alhazen made significant contributions to optics, number theory, geometry, astronomy and natural philosophy. "[122], Alhazen was a Muslim and most sources report that he was a Sunni, who was a follower of the Ash'ari school. [69] In a more detailed account of Ibn al-Haytham's contribution to the study of binocular vision based on Lejeune[70] and Sabra,[71] Raynaud[72] showed that the concepts of correspondence, homonymous and crossed diplopia were in place in Ibn al-Haytham's optics. The first theory, the emission theory, was supported by such thinkers as Euclid and Ptolemy, who believed that sight worked by the eye emitting rays of light. [48][verification needed], Alhazen's most famous work is his seven-volume treatise on optics Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics), written from 1011 to 1021. [126][need quotation to verify][127], Alhazen wrote a work on Islamic theology in which he discussed prophethood and developed a system of philosophical criteria to discern its false claimants in his time. Alhazen corrected a significant error of Ptolemy regarding binocular vision, but otherwise his account is very similar; Ptolemy also attempted to explain what is now called Hering's law. In addition, the life and work of the 11 th century Muslim scientist, Ibn al-Haytham, who is widely regarded as the Father of Optics, will be celebrated. The impact crater Alhazen on the Moon is named in his honour,[143] as was the asteroid 59239 Alhazen. Alhazen's intromission theory followed al-Kindi (and broke with Aristotle) in asserting that "from each point of every colored body, illuminated by any light, issue light and color along every straight line that can be drawn from that point". In his Analysis and Synthesis, he may have been the first to state that every even perfect number is of the form 2n−1(2n − 1) where 2n − 1 is prime, but he was not able to prove this result; Euler later proved it in the 18th century. Cleomedes (c. 2nd century) gave this account (in addition to refraction), and he credited it to Posidonius (c. 135–50 BC). Narinder Singh Kapany (Punjabi: ਨਰਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ) (born 31 October 1926) is an Indian-born American physicist known for his work in fibre optics. [142] His research in catoptrics (the study of optical systems using mirrors) centred on spherical and parabolic mirrors and spherical aberration. [128] His solution was extremely long and complicated and may not have been understood by mathematicians reading him in Latin translation. ... God, however, has not preserved the scientist from error and has not safeguarded science from shortcomings and faults. [125] What can you say about this. Ibn al Haytham have write 96 books but now only 55 books are known to have survived. [52] This work enjoyed a great reputation during the Middle Ages. Our bi-monthly theme in January and February 2015 will be on ‘Light & Optics’ and we will develop … Besides the Book of Optics, Alhazen wrote several other treatises on the same subject, including his Risala fi l-Daw' (Treatise on Light). In 2014, the "Hiding in the Light" episode of Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, presented by Neil deGrasse Tyson, focused on the accomplishments of Ibn al-Haytham. [110], Alhazen wrote a total of twenty-five astronomical works, some concerning technical issues such as Exact Determination of the Meridian, a second group concerning accurate astronomical observation, a third group concerning various astronomical problems and questions such as the location of the Milky Way; Alhazen made the first systematic effort of evaluating the Milky Way's parallax, combining Ptolemy's data and his own. He made many contribution the field of optics and visual Perception. [103], Alhazen also discussed space perception and its epistemological implications in his Book of Optics. He was voiced by Alfred Molina in the episode. This leads to an equation of the fourth degree. [73] His understanding of pinhole projection from his experiments appears to have influenced his consideration of image inversion in the eye,[74] which he sought to avoid. 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