First, Islam spread into the regions West of the Niger Bend (Senegambia, Mali), then into Chad region and finally into Hausaland. The term ‘Almoravid’ comes from the Arabic word ‘al-Murabit, literally meaning “one who is trying” but figuratively meaning “one who is ready for battle at a fortress”. Timbuktu has the credit of establishing the first Muslim University, called Sankore University, in West Africa; its name is commemorated until today in Ibadan University where a staff residential area has been named as Sankore Avenue.Like Mansa Musa of Mali, Askia Muhammad Toure went on a pilgrimage and thus came into close contact with Muslim scholars and rulers in the Arab countries. In other words, some Muslim scholars had already become reformers-conquerors before the advent of Usman dan Fodio. They also had a flag carrier as the front who guided the forces behind him, when the flag was upright, the combatants behind would stand and when it was turned down, they would sit. According to some Arabic sources the first Black ruler to embrace Islam was the King of Gao who had done so by 1009. They worked with the rulers as advisors, councilors etc. But just as they had methods, they also had tactics! His two successors were Ibrahim Ibn Tashfin and Ishaq Ibn Ali, but their reigns were short. During the reign of Dunama II (1221-1259), a Kanem embassy was established in Tunisia around 1257, as mentioned by the famous Andalusian historian Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406 C.E.). He led his people from Jaka Masina to Jaka Bambuku. Abu Bakr married a noble and wealthy Berber woman, Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyat, who would become very influential in the development of the dynasty. Even if the social dimension of the jihad should not be totally neglected, dan Fodio himself declared mainly religious reasons to be at the origin of the jihad in Kitab al-Farq. If Alhaji Salim Suwareh did not raise the sword to spread Islam, Al Hajj Umar Tal (1797-1864) did and with as much success as the Jakhanke missionaries. It enabled rulers to build larger Kingdoms and empires embracing different peoples and Linguistic groups. Created by a jihad launched by Usman dan Fodio (also spelt Usman Ibn Fodio, Uthman Dan Fuduye, or Uthman Ibn Fodio) between 1804 and 1810, the caliphate of Sokoto was the largest and most populated state of nineteenth-century Africa. There are two important names in the history of Islam in Mali: Sundiata (1230-1255) and Mansa Musa (1312-1337). The Almoravid dynasty was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. As for example Tarikh al-Sudan, the History of the Sudan, by Al-Sadi and Tarikh al-Fattash by Muhammad al-Kati.There were famous trade routes, like the one from Sijilmasa to Taghaza, Awdaghast, which led to the empire of Ghana, and another from Sijilmasa to Tuat, Gao and Timbikutu. This is all the more relevant as we write today because of the rampant violence associated with Islam in many parts of the world. He left on a pilgrimage but died in Egypt before reaching Makkah. For dan Fodio, the main reason for the jihad was the purification of Islam in territories which were already Muslim at the beginning of the nineteenth century. How Islam spread into sub-Saharan region of West Africa, and the great civilizations it established there, taking its inhabitants out of paganism to the worship of One God. The book is a celebrated masterpiece and is called The Obligation of the Princes. ]; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977), AL HAJJ UMAR TAL AND THE OMARIEN DYNAMIC IN WEST AFRICA. In replacing the taxes of the Hausa leaders by Islamic taxes like the zakat, revenues of the Caliphate were in theory subject to Islamic law. Islam in the Empire of SonghayIslam began to spread in the Empire of Songhay some time in the 11th century when the ruling Za or Dia dynasty first accepted it. The different successors of dan Fodio had to carry out military campaigns to assert their authority, thus making jihad a virtually uninterrupted phenomenon until the mid-nineteenth century. http://archivesetmanuscrits.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cc20347c, Poem written by Nana Asma’u Fodio, daughter of Usman dan Fodio, https://eap.bl.uk/archive-file/EAP387-1-2-6, 2: Trans-Saharan Trade. The same applied to the iron, cotton, indigo, or leather industries of the central regions of the caliphate. By the time Muhammad Rumfa came into power (1453-1499), Islam was firmly rooted in Kano. Invoking stories of the early life of Muhammed, Ibn Yasin preached that conquest was a necessary addendum to Islamicization, that it was not enough to merely adhere to God’s law, law was necessary to also destroy opposition to it. Islam promoted trade between West Africa and the Mediterranean. This gave a uniform Muslim law to the people. Economically, it was a prosperous country. Vol. But we must not attribute his quick success to the sword of the Jihad alone; Umar’s version of Tijaniya was also pro poor, and socially uplifting. iii. It is said that Dunama II opened a Talisman (Munni or Mune), considered sacred by his people, and thus brought a period of hardship to his people. After the Berbers’ Islamisation, the religion spread into the Western Sudan from the closing decades of the tenth century. Much of the subsequent styles, and techniques associated with the peaceful spread of Islam in Senegambia is their creation. He was defeated by the combined action of his Christian foes in Iberia and the agitation of Almohads (the Muwahhids) in Morocco. The town possesses a large number of jurists, consults and learned men.Islam in the Empire of MaliThe influence of Islam in Mali dates back to the 15th century when Al-Bakri mentions the conversion of its ruler to Islam. Doi, Abdur Rahman I. Islam in Nigeria. The Berghouata resisted. Such towns include Jenne, Timbuctu, Gao Kano and Katsina, and were as much creations of the Islamisation of the Western Sudan as they were of the trans-Saharan trade. Indeed the Caliphate of Sokoto was a highly decentralised state ruled by the Caliph. In the same year, he made a pilgrimage to Mecca and stayed in Arabia for 13 years, and was ordained the Kalifa or emissary of the Tijaniya sect in West Africa. According to some scholars, Ali Ibn Yusuf provided a new generation of leadership that had forgotten the desert life for the comforts of the city. The disciples having gone through years of tutelage, would be allowed to disperse and then mass up new disciples themselves. “The Wahhabiyya: Islamic Reform and Politics in French West Africa.” (1974). The Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city which was the ruling house founded in 1062. Harrison, Christopher. Many observers have tried to understand the jihad, the caliphate and especially the figure of Usman dan Fodio. There was also the change in cultural life as a result of the introduction of Islam in West Africa. ( Log Out /  We shall also find out the activities of the Almoravids. First, Islam spread into the regions West of the Niger Bend (Senegambia, Mali), then into Chad region and finally into Hausaland. Al-Bakri also mentions that Umayyad refugees, who had fled from Baghdad following plans to liquidate their dynasty at the hands of the Abbasids, were residing in Kanem [21, 22].With the introduction of Islam in Kanem, it became the principal focus of Muslim influence in the central Sudan and relations were established with the Arab world in the Middle East and the Maghrib. What were these standards? They document famous trade routes in Africa - from Sijilmasa to Taghaza, Awdaghast, which led to the empire of Ghana, and from Sijilmasa to Tuat, Gao and Timbikutu. When the famous scholar Al-Maghilli called him a pagan, he punished him too. By the 13th century it had come under the dominion of the Mali Empire but had freed itself by the end of the 14th century when the dynasty was renamed Sunni. The jihad and the creation of the caliphate. Literacy made it possible for scholars to preserve the history and the oral traditions of some of the states in books. At the age of 23 in 1820, he had finished his studies and was awarded the title ‘alfa’ or scholar. The Caliphate itself was a novel phenomenon in the Hausa regions and conferred moral and political authority on dan Fodio and his successors. For the Lamtuna leadership, this new ideology dovetailed with their long desire to refound the Sanhaja union and recover their lost dominions. Al-Bakri, a renowned Arabic Scholar and merchant wrote in 1067, that the capital of ancient Ghana was already divided into two parts; about six miles apart, the Muslim traders’ part which had as many as twelve mosques and the King’s part had one mosque for the use of the king’s Muslim visitors. The religious questioning of the jihad of dan Fodio was therefore not completely original. They resorted to more peaceful methods such as establishing Koranic schools and mosques, upgrading of mosques,  holding sessions on Koranic exegesis, preservation of holy sites where yearly Islamic gatherings take place and being itinerant traders who took Islam to their clients and customers. Please click this link to download the chapter. Kaba, Lansiné. This is exactly why the Jakhanke should interest us. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. Their fighting was intense and they did not retreat when disadvantage by an advancing opposing force, they preferred death over defeat. Zaynab was the daughter of a wealthy merchant from Houara, who was said to be from Kairouan. ‘Clerics and educators’ indicate their profession as literate and therefore able to proselytize and do missionary work. Change ). Examples of such books are the Tarikh es Sudan written by Al-Sa’di in Timbuktu in the seventeenth century. 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