Microsporophyll head large, 4-5 mm across at anthesis. In confirmation of species identity, the most important characters are those associated with the pollen cone. Bark brown to grey, smooth, except for scattered flakes. Exudate slow and meagre. Seed germination time 5 to 7 days. Cotyledons lanceolate with a number of veins arising at the same point at the base and continuing +/- parallel to the apex. 1998. By then the Forestry Department had taken a harder line and refused to allow logging of trees suspected of being victims of poisoning. Female cones ellipsoid to globose, 6-8.5 x 5.5-6.5 (- 13) cm; seed scales 30-40 mm long, roughly tri-angular in shape with a well rounded apical margin. Agathis lanceolata in habitat, New Caledonia [Adam Black, 2020.02.09, Facebook post]. Cones about 8-10.5 cm diameter each with about 340-440 scales per cone. New Phytologist 84: 407-416. Kauri is a Maori word, applied by that people to Agathis australis and generalized in modern usage to all species of Agathis (Boland et al. A. robusta subsp. Kidapawan City, Brgy. 1980. "Range of the genus Agathis Salisb. Farjon's key is more applicable to the species discussed here but cannot be reprinted here for copyright reasons. The most economically important group of Gymnosperms is … PHILIPPINES: Mindanao:: North Cotabato prov. The more prominent female cones (9-15 cm long and 8-10.5 cm wide) are rounded to broadly egg-shaped (i.e. 2006. Known pests include the … Endemic to Queensland, widespread in NEQ with another occurrence in the south-eastern corner of Queensland but absent from coastal central Queensland. Although not all species were treated, it seems likely that A. corbassonii would fall into the New Caledonia clade, while A. endertii, A. flavescens, A. kinabaluensis, A. labillardieri, A. lenticula, A. orbicula, and A. silbae would fall into the extended Oceania clade. Radial symmetry in new terminal growth on Agathis corbassonii in New Caledonia [Adam Black, 2014.06.01, Facebook post]. Page, C. N. 1980. The wood is straight-grained, pale straw to yellow-brown, with a specific gravity of about 0.47 to 0.61 (Whitmore 1977). Pollen cone basal bracts to 10x30 mm, seed cone scales with a boss on the upper margin. Kauri is a Maori word, applied by that people to Agathis australis and generalized in modern usage to all species of Agathis (Boland et al. 0. 1) . New Caledonia. In these sites it grows often as solitary trees but more commonly in groves mixed with other rainforest trees. Agathis or Qld Kauri can live for centuries, but did you know that they were logged for their straight timber too much so by 1922, the Forestry Branch reported: ‘Of kauri pine the … Microsporophyll head lanceolate, margin crenate-serrate. Nearly mature female cone from an Agathis robusta tree in Yatton Park, New Zealand [C.J. Komarovia 4:62. The reproductive cycle extends over 19-20 months from pollination in October to seed maturity in February or March of the second year following (10). Figures above the hyphen indicate the number of endemic species, that below the hyphen the total number of species" (de Laubenfels 1988). in Java. The female cones are globe shaped, whilst male cones are more cylindrical measuring up to 5cm in length; and each brown, winged seed is attached to a triangular cone scale on the cone. Microsporophyll head at anthesis 2 mm across, lightly dentate. Copyright CSIRO. Pollen cone 6×25-10×50 mm. Basal bracts forming a loose cupule, at least as wide as cone base except sometimes in. New Caledonia. When the seed matures, the cone opens up, exposing the seeds to the environment. Curtis's Botanical Magazine 19(4): 252-264. Male cones oblong, straight, ultimately 3-4 cm long, 10 This limit was set at 22 feet girth. The short pollen cones help distinguish this species from related Agathis species. Agathis primarily grows as a minor component of relatively inaccessible tropical forests, and most of the species resemble each other very closely. It was female at the base and male at the tip (Fig. Cataphylls are produced above the cotyledons and after lateral shoots are produced. determination in cycad is possible only after maturity and cone formation. Araucaria is dioecious whereas Agathis is usually monoecious. Pollen cone with 2 of the basal bracts enlarged and leaf-like. Leaves and ripening female cone ... Agathis robusta is a slow-growing but long-lived large evergreen conifer that can reach a height of 25 - 30 metres, exceptionally to 43 metres. Transactions of the Linnean Society. Herbarium Amboinense, V. 2. Keys are provided by Whitmore (1980) and Farjon (2010). Explains the importance of Sir Joseph Banks, Kew and the RBG Sydney, and the historical significance of kauris still growing in Sydney. Branches horizontal or (when large) turning irregularly upward, leaving circular scars on the trunk after they fall. Leaf micromorphology in Agathis and its taxonomic implications. Pollen cone 8×20-10×25mm at anthesis; cupule wider than cone base. The male pollen cones appear usually only on larger trees after seed cones have appeared. Abstract: Discusses the introduction to Europe of kauris, grown there as greenhouse ornamentals. Exploitation of Agathis resins also began early in New Zealand. Pollen cone at anthesis 6×11 - 8×16 mm; basal bracts clasping the cone; microsporophylls with stalk not winged, anthers inserted near head. Evolutionary implications of the distribution and ecology of the tropical genus Agathis. Seeds ovoid, compressed, margins winged. Agathis philippinensis Araucariaceae image. These two botanists described most of the species now recognized, established that the principal taxonomic characters in the genus concern those of the pollen cone, and showed that most of the species have geographically separate distributions. The straight, … This shows a tree 15 cm diameter [C.J. The fruit are a round to egg-shaped cone, comparable in size to an orange and are either female or male on the same tree. A fallen bisexual cone of Queensland kauri (Agathis broumii [Lemaire] 1. , Head of microsporophyll with a distinct umbo, tessellately arranged in the cone. Kauri Pine; South Queensland Kauri Pine; South Queensland Kauri; Smooth Bark Kauri; Queensland Kauri; Queensland Kauri Pine; Pine, Kauri; Pine, Dundathu; Pine, Queensland Kauri; North Queensland Kauri Pine; North Queensland Kauri; Kauri, North Queensland; Kauri; Dundathu Pine; Kauri, South Queensland. The male (pollen) cones are cylindrical, 5–10 cm long and 1-1.5 cm thick." nesophila occurs in New Guinea. Their range extends from 10°30' N to 38° S, and from 96° E to 180° E. They occur from near sea level to about 2500 m elevation, and in lowland situations they are found on diverse substrates including podzolized sands, ultramafics, carbonates and silicates. 2-3 cm, tapering towards the rounded apex. Earle, 2003.03]. Mountains of Borneo. It would be more fair, though, to say that two species, A. australis and A. dammara, stood for the whole genus during most of the time between discovery and 1900. Many species of Agathis are listed by the WCMC as vulnerable or endangered and in decline. The distribution of most taxa is confined to a relatively limited space within the vast archipelago reaching from Sumatra and the Philippines to New Zealand, that comprises the genus' range. Thoughout its range, Agathis is highly sought after as a source of attractive, straight-grained, easily worked timber (Whitmore 1977). Microsporophyll head 1.5-2 mm diameter at anthesis. Observation platform at base of tree gives scale [C.J. Earlier taxonomic investigations by several different authors (de Laubenfels 1988, Page 1980, Whitmore 1980, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service 1998) attempted to provide an infrageneric classification, but the several schemes presented showed little agreement. Identification of the species of Agathis is most easily performed using a map: most species are not found in cultivation and have disjunct ranges. Pollen cones appearing mostly on larger trees after seed cones have appeared, axillary (sometimes terminal), cylindrical, subtended at the base by rounded, sterile bud scales. Female cone of Agathis Female cone of Cycas globular spirally arranged and appear like a rosette appear on the short branches laterally present around the apex of the monopodial trunk of the female plant reach only up to 5 cm in length up to 30 cm in length 5. The pollen cone is stiff, dense, cylindrical, and solitary; usually being found in the leaf axils. When most of the logs were being shipped out of Cairns and when the only reliable transport of logs to Cairns was by rail, an upper size limit had to be set on logs (mainly Kauri Pine logs) so that the rail wagons would fit through the tunnels on the Kuranda Range. Pollen cone without leaf-like bracteoles; peduncle short. A female pine cone, also called a megasporangiate strobilus, consists of cone or seed scales that hold two ovules, the unfertilized seeds. The stands in the Danbulla State Forest area were particularly sought after because of their timber potential. Wood specific gravity 0.48. Microsporophyll head at anthesis 2(-2.5) mm wide ×2 mm long, with a thin margin; anthers 6-14. Australia. Female reproductive organs are present in the form of megasporophylls. International Journal of Plant Science 154: 187-225. The inner bark exudes a translucent or white resin, soluble in alcohol, called Manila Copal. Whitmore, T. C. and C. N. Page. Female cone of Agathis australis, Auckland, New Zealand Historical photos and products. Leaf blades about 5-13 x 1-4 cm. Plant Common Name. In ideal conditions, it takes at least 10 to 12 years for cycad to reach maturity. There are two subspecies, distinguished by distribution and by pollen cone morphology: 1. Agathis robuasta female cones The Queensland Kauri is a little known but magnificent specimen, that dates back to the mid-Jurassic period. Female Reproductive Organs: True female cone or strobilus is absent Cycas. Agathis is Greek for a ball of thread, an allusion to the globose female cone. 8:308-317. Melanesia. 1985). (1883) A Synopsis of the Queensland Flora : 498. Like other gymnosperms, the Pacific kauri produces male and female reproductive structures in cones and not in flowers. 2013. I place the cone in a brown paper bag in a sunny spot. Female and male cones are on different branches on the same tree. Buds usually globular, with few, imbricate, overlapping scales. 2. Elucidation of this puzzle required molecular analysis, including rbcL gene sequences by Setoguchi et al. nesophila Whitmore 1980, syn. New Caledonia. The largest, and one of the largest of all conifers, is Agathis australis. A. robusta subsp. 8.39). The timber of this species has had a wide range of uses and more or less corresponds with those of Araucaria cunninghamii. Work to date has shown a fairly high level of agreement in regard to the total number of taxa (19 species), a situation largely due to the high degree of endemism in the genus, though there has been a long history of lumping or splitting around the most variable and widespread species, A. dammara. Taxonomic relationships within Agathis have been described in a series of publications extending over the past 50 years (Whitmore 1977, Bowen and Whitmore 1980, Page 1980, Whitmore 1980, Whitmore and Page 1980, de Laubenfels 1988, New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service 1998, Farjon 2010, Escapa and Catalano 2013). Amsterdam: Joannes Burmannus. Salisbury, Richard Anthony. Most of these analyses were based largely on morphology of the pollen cone and leaf cuticle, as foliar morphology is highly variable and female cones, which disintegrate upon drying, are seldom preserved (Whitmore 1980). The presence of the species triggered the construction of access roads to a number of North Queensland localities, e.g. Wollemi Pine (Wollemia nobilis) recovery plan. Microsporophyll head in adaxial view round or spatulate, only 1-3 mm broad (4-5 mm in. robusta, syn. Further work is needed to resolve relationships within the latter group, which seems likely to have speciated over a fairly long period. (1989). (2012). Leaves small, ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 15×10 - 60×15 mm. Ilomavis, Energy Development Corporation (EDC) Site G, Mount Apo Natural Park; coordinates of general area ~ Male Kauri Cone pendant ~ 48mm tall (1.9 inches). 69p. Ilomavis, Energy Development Corporation (EDC) Site G, Mount Apo Natural Park; coordinates of general area The female cone … Earle, 2003.03]. 2004. Nonetheless, the great tree named by Rumphius turned out to be the predominate tropical species of Agathis, and was soon being exploited for its timber and its resins throughout most of its range. Known pests include the seed-eating moth Agathiphaga, found in Queensland and the New Hebrides. Pollen cones without leaf-like bracts (except. The female cones are also round and ovoid, but they are compact and symmetrical. This pendant is a stylised design inspired by a male Kauri cone from the famous New Zealand Kauri tree (Agathis australis) - an ancient species which grows to huge proportions & whose timber is prized for it's exquisite aesthetic grain patterning & rich golden honey colour. These efforts were not always successful and accounts of ring barking episodes on moonlight nights abound. Each of the densely packed scales (3.5-4.0 cm long and 4-4.5 cm wide) usually bears a single seed at its base. It was a valuable resource largely consumed by the war effort. Queensland, east New Guinea, New Britain. Juvenile leaves larger than adult leaves, more or less acute, varying among the apecies from ovate to lanceolate. Pollen cone a flexuous cylinder 9×60 mm at anthesis. 6. Altitudinal range in NEQ from near sea level to 1100 m. A characteristic tree of drier rain forest where other tree species experience difficulty in attaining large dimensions. New Caledonia. Agathis robusta also occurred in good stands on the Kirrama Range and most of this area was logged during the second world war. The female cones in some of the species of Agathis (Fig 11.55A) reach only up to 5 cm. A single tree produces both male and female seed cones. Fertilisation of the seeds occurs by pollination, which may be driven by the same or another tree's pollen. This was before Linnaeus’ 1753 publication of the Genera Plantarum, and the genus name Dammara was subsequently found invalid, the earliest valid name, Agathis, being published in 1807. 1985). Kauri Pine contributed much of the folklore of North Queensland but not to the same extent as in New Zealand. Lowland forests. Seed cones usually on short lateral branchlets, maturing and deciduous in 2 years, globose-ovoid, with numerous, flattened, broadly ovate scales without bracts and with minute apical umbos. Microsporophyll head at anthesis 1.5 mm across, serrulate to crenulate. Usually the cone disintegrates on the tree. Available: www.botanicus.org, accessed 2009.11.14. They often occur as discrete emergent trees, but sometimes form pure stands or are mixed in the lower canopy (Whitmore 1977). Mt. CC-BY Australian Tropical Herbarium unless otherwise indicated in the images. 0. The male and female cones are usually found on the same tree. Pollen is shed from the cylindrical male cones whilw the more rounded female cones are pollinated by the wind and become scaly, red-brown cones … Adams, J. G. Erne. Plant Systematics and Evolution 135: 71-79. ed. Microsporophyll head small, 1-3 mm across at anthesis. New Caledonia. Kidapawan City, Brgy. Kauri: a king among kings. Stem completely lacking buttresses. Cycas circinalis, a species endemic to India was the first cycad species to be described and was the type of the generic name, Cycas category. Pollen cone basal bracts to 4x20 mm; seed cone scales lacking a boss on the upper margin. Agathis australis can attain heights of 40 to 50 metres and trunk diameters big enough to rival Californian sequoias at over 5 metres. Kauri Pine; South Queensland Kauri Pine; South Queensland Kauri; Smooth BarkKauri; Queensland Kauri; Queensland Kauri Pine; Pine, Kauri; Pine, Dundathu; Pine, Queensland Kauri; North Queensland Kauri Pine; North Queensland Kauri; Kauri, North Queensland; Kauri; Dundathu Pine; Kauri, South Queensland Head of microsporophyll not umbonate, imbricate in the cone. Mature kauri trees have characteristically large trunks, forming a trunk with little or no branching below the crown. Its memory lives on in the Kauri-Butanol rating system, which is a standardized measure of the solvent power of organic solvents based on their interaction with a solution of copal in butanol. Cotyledons 2, broad, lanceolate with an acute apex. Earle, 2003.03]. Female cone subglobose, on a short peduncle, 6 cm long by 6-8 cm wide, glaucous-green, scales 1.8 cm long with a short mucronate umbo (1). Microsporophyll more or less abruptly joined to stalk. Bailey, F.M. 1993. The female (seed) cones are globose, 8–13 cm diameter, and mature in 18–20 months after pollination; they disintegrate at maturity to release the seeds. This species is monoecious with separate male and female cones on the same tree. The WCMC list notes that "Agathis species are distinctive, highly sought and exploited for their valuable timber.". The kauri thrip Oxythrips agathidis is another, somewhat less destructive defoliator also known from Queensland. 2nd rev. AGATHIS robusta. At the tenth leaf stage: seedling glabrous. It may be that the interpretation of the female cone of the Abietineae as an inflorescence, which finds favour with many botanists, cannot be applied to the cones of Agathis and Araucaria. Based on data from several wide-ranging species, Agathis participates in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae; one associate is the phycomycete Endogone (Whitmore 1977). Taxa presented in this treatment include the following: Evergreen trees, usually monoecious, very large, with clear straight boles beneath a globular crown (young trees conical). Male (pollen) cones are cylindrical, 2-5 cm long and female (seed) cones are woody, globose, 8-10 cm thick. Microsporophyll head narrowing gradually into stalk. H. Bailey) was found in May, 1964 at the nursery of the Hawaii Forestry Division at Hilo, Hawaii. Peninsular Malaysia to New Zealand, including Malesia, the Philippines, New Guinea, Melanesia and Australia. Branch abscision, common in Agathis, helps the trees to minimize their epiphyte load. Microsporophyll head tiny, 0.6 mm diameter at anthesis, entire. 1986. 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Adaxial view round or spatulate, only 1-3 mm broad ( 4-5 mm across at,... [ Dammera robusta, Agathis participates in vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae ; one associate is the phycomycete Endogone ( 1977... Presence of the basal bracts leaf-like ( Whitmore 1977 ) circular scars on the Barron River basal bracts forming trunk! Of uses and more or less flattened and ovoid, but often small in forest-grown trees, relatively.! But can not be reprinted here for copyright reasons 4 ): 252-264 borne short! Cone opens up, exposing the seeds occurs by pollination, which are winged get... Bornean mountains, widely cult paper bag in a sunny spot cone opens up, exposing the seeds the... About 340-440 scales per cone seed at its base by the WCMC notes... And in decline shape, forming a loose cupule, at least 10 to 12 years cycad., the cone opens up, exposing the seeds are asymmetrical with both dextral and forms. 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Of Agathis is the phycomycete Endogone ( Whitmore 1977 ) distinguish this species from related Agathis species are attacked! Of Sir Joseph Banks, Kew and the Historical significance of kauris, grown there as greenhouse ornamentals pollen. Dense, cylindrical, 5–10 cm long and 8-10.5 cm wide ) rounded... Large, 4-5 mm across at anthesis, entire cataphylls are produced above cotyledons! In forest-grown trees, but often small in forest-grown trees, but they are compact and.... Division at Hilo, Hawaii Farjon 's key is more applicable to the same tree releases! The tropical genus Agathis in cycad is possible only after maturity and cone formation brown to grey,,! Zealand [ C.J, the Philippines, Celebes, Moluccas, some mountains! And symmetrical canopy ( Whitmore 1977 ) adaxial view round or spatulate, only 1-3 mm broad ( mm! Species identity, the cone from an Agathis robusta, Agathis palerstoni ], Marcos... When large ) turning irregularly upward, leaving circular scars on the beneath! Not be reprinted here for copyright reasons turning irregularly upward, leaving circular scars on the same extent as New...