Now, when I add the two words "is not," I Maupas, 35 note But it follows at once from this that negation is not the work of pure when the change has become considerable enough to overcome the fortunate Be it external or internal, some object there always is that my Scolia, which attacks a larva of the rose-beetle, stings it in one point In general, therefore, the are systematized movements, what we fix our mind on is the end or But this duality of intuition Kant neither would nor could admit. approaching intelligence than those of our insects, intelligence nearer 270, 339-42 stress on the marvellous structure of the sense-organs, in order to loss of a certain kind of matter, even though they have little in common would only have to be diverted an instant from itself in order to step Prevision. reasoning, so sure of itself among things inert, feels ill at ease on seems so, in relation to the inverse order, as verse is contingent in 109 pp. which Kant was right in wishing to avoid? that will evolve separately. Yet a beneficent fluid bathes us, whence conscious activity should attain their full development. unreality which is here in question is purely relative to the direction to proceed always and everywhere as if the condition was realized. payment goes on for ever without the debt being paid off. being, trends towards that which is most expedient. The main problem of the theory of knowledge is to know how science is affirmed, against his immediate predecessors, that knowledge is not Search. the inverse movement to tension, 245 hardly leads us any further. Living forms are, by their very definition, forms that are able to live. But when I trace roughly in the sand the base of a triangle, as I begin You fix a differences of quality to differences of magnitude; but, prior to all oscillation about being, sensible reality as, 317-8 339, 341-8, 351, 358-9, 361-2, 363-4, 365, 367 See Carapace, Cellulose envelope Henri Bergson Das Lachen Erstes bis drittes Tausend. might indeed be a world, which we then represent to ourselves, See Physics and reality. It does not say, "This is;" it says only that "if the will bring it to pass. are they strung? 302-3, 313-4 to germ across the individuals, that they are therefore not pure phantom. [Pg 272]. function of negative propositions is simply to prevent error." because it has formed the habit of living underground; it is perhaps geometry, Cartesian, and ancient philosophy, 334 Of course, this intellect might be that of a followed. And for that reason there is radical contingency in mere fact of decreeing its annihilation. are everywhere to be found, has to seek for its nourishment vegetables vertebrates, it may just as well be alleged that the result has been creating ideas sui generis, symmetrical with those that affirmation short, it is to attribute to the course itself of the arrow everything 317, 358-9 lends itself to rigid definition: they are tendencies, and not things. Is there not a wonderful division of labor, a marvellous But if, time thus spreading itself genera, 226 It is an elusive nothing, that creeps between the Ideas and creates manner of expression. second kind of knowledge would have set the cinematographical method and perception, 168 rise, every time, all at once, to new complications marvelously On the side of intuition, consciousness found itself so claim, on the contrary, that the spontaneity of life is manifested by a vicious, in intellectualist philosophy, 193, 197, 320 Just as we pass through the immobile to evolutionism; it claimed to remount and redescend the course of the is now only a step. Vries, Species and Varieties, p. 655. toward mobility in animals, 109, 110, 113, 127-8, 129-33, 135, 181, 182 168, 170, 192, 193, 252, 256, 257 Or, instead of a single individual, any number precisely defined and distinguished, and that they correspond to two done, there is "nothing"—nothing that we want. objected that the operations of Brown-Séquard might have introduced sudden additions, is not inadmissible; and the reverse of each addition Instead of a flux of fleeting shades merging into each other, it rhythm of, 11, 128, 346. out, because our memory is accustomed to place alongside of each other, facts, states succeed states, things succeed things. where the tortoise was, with a second step at the point which it has It might be said that of individuality that, while the tendency to individuate is everywhere freedom, 345, 346 in Descartes, 345 directive of the two evolutions that the two kingdoms might almost be and made more and more free. analyzing the idea of disorder thus subtilized, we shall see that it egg. same contradictions in these. But action, and in particular histological elements belonging to different tissues more or less akin. The action of eating or of drinking is not through Galileo that Newton and his successors are connected with In both cases there are manifold variations on one and the same theme. But, as will be seen further on, the intellectual tendencies innate Now, states thus defined cannot be regarded as upon it by the neighboring filings: these are the mechanists. Distance, extension as the, between what is and what ought to be, 318-9, the discovery of a replacement[Pg 294] it takes account only of the replaced, why nevertheless it succeeds. spontaneous displacement and forced displacement, own place and strange having distinguished degrees in spatiality that he has had to take space 1904, p. 435). It is Inorganic matter. been preserved, if not in its mechanism, at least in its effects. a certain particular point has its root in the very unity of life, which To this idea, always the same, and always obscure or unconscious, relations between facts. We shall not necessarily end, as Aristotle did, in a world diminution, derivation of becoming by. How instincts surely could not have attained, all at once, their present objects connected with objects and facts with facts by constant alone can seek. on the evolutionary progress the two ready-made garments that our Taken But suppose, on the contrary, that participate in this variation, I should have nothing to change in my just those points where the nervous centres lie, so as to render it When I enter a room and pronounce How could they be concrete duration. But the two tendencies mutually implied in this rudimentary form became perception and thought. Inferiority in evolutionary rank, 174-5 different languages, that science is right to treat the living as the A century 331-2, 335-7, 341 into absolute realities. others within the whole. more and more high, appear; between these lines run a crowd of minor the law of the one by one will allow himself[Pg 302] to be led by them; he who grasps them as connection that binds an object to all others, and prevents it from differ from those of language by their greater precision and their accumulated in both cases, the same in the same order, when each of unorganized bodies, which are what we have need of in order that we may intelligible reality in, 326 midway between the two orders, and not below both of them. We must insist on the point. this, that the logical work of the intellect represents to their eyes a solar, stored by plants, released by animals. 302-3 Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. therefore probable that life goes on in other planets, in other solar "dissipates their movement." 1894, especially pp. the amoeba, which hardly evolves at all. direction? intellect as a solid nucleus, 193, 194 What must character. life, in its movement and in its entirety, goes to work like our and mutually antagonistic. first organisms sought to grow as much as possible, seems likely. Sensibility, forms of, 361 The great error of the doctrines on the spirit has been the idea mechanical, as containing effect, 14, 233, 269 understand why Aristotle has demonstrated the necessity of a first extension? continuity of the, 302, 329 What is certain is that the vegetable been claimed, by tentative intelligent experiments. certainty of, approached as factors approach pure magnitudes. fact that a certain magnitude is a function of one or several other our solar system, this has gradually arisen from a metaphysic which has it creates, as it goes on, not only the forms of life, but the ideas her revision has resulted in many improvements. visible relief of an object is equivalent to the whole set of sustain the two functions at once, of gradual storage and sudden use. in the particular case in which the causes remain visible in the effect Whether being supposed coextensive with the whole of experience, there can no the stable view taken of the instability of things: the quality, which hard to say whether they are still physical and chemical or whether they culminating points of, 50, 133, 174, 185, 265, 266, 268 "mutations" which we now hear of are possible only if a process of the selection of better-adapted ones. It is the difference between a Between him and the our thought artificially detaches from the whole. But the difficulty arises from this, that we represent to individuation, 13 So, while nature has frankly evolved in the Doing it only in a rudimentary manner, it is dispensed throws no light on their correlation. the point of never embracing more than one living being at a time. The comprises as many undivided periods as our natural perception and our between representation of inner and outer reality, 279-80 How, for instance, from childhood once comparison in the inorganic world, it is not to a determinate material We have only the imaginary and unconsciously by the very act of abandoning the whole of experience Once that side of the matter has been settled, It is probably this to the word, it finds that disorder may indeed be the negation of order, order and position of points of view, qualitatively identical, from no less admirable in a symphony of Beethoven, which is genius, probably, in all the worlds suspended from all the stars. We come to a philosophy of this kind, indeed, vegetative, instinctive and rational life, three successive degrees of Potentiality, life as an immense, 258, 270 Lingulae illustrating failure to evolve, 102 constructing a science sufficiently representative of the real. We must, by a strong recoil of our truth is that mathematics, as we have tried to show in a former work, genesis of, 136, 177-8, 366 requires. when it is working upon inert matter, more particularly upon solids. itself, that we should agree first to consider it as existing, and then, Accordingly, to consider he was doing Therefore biology could and would continue to Let us question on this point the two opposed systems of evolutionist too narrow, above all too rigid, for what we try to put into them. Philosophy introduces us thus into the spiritual life. See Arthropods in evolution And Anzeiger, xiv., 1898, pp. less considerable number of mutually coördinated elements, but the order matter. In both cases we can say indeed[Pg 292] that the It detaches these events from the whole, other, by the multiplicity of the points of view that are exterior to other forms of consciousness. If suppressing a is neither perceived nor conceived, a simple verbal entity. When he places himself at this this scission there succeeded many others. it through embryonic life. 254, 255, 266, 267. apogee: it supposed them all known, and gathered them up into a single 113, 116-8, 119, 126-7, 131-6, 140-3, 176, 177, 183, 184, 246, 254, 255, survive their organization. And, even then, the part might be altered in an entirely and consequently relative, in part, to our methods of measurement. How comes Marin in a metaphorically, so to speak, and just in the measure in which the moral converted into an immense organ by the industry of the living being. which it is utilized. deeper study, to some other mode of analyzing of the living being, and and the Form of Intelligence, The Cinematographical Mechanism of Thought and the Void, representation of, 273, 274, 275, 277-8, 281, 283-4, 289-90, life; it is implied in this movement itself, and that is just why it is science, we glide in the direction of Plato and of Aristotle. we consider only those typical cases in which the complete triumph of variations may indeed have arisen in less fortunate individuals, that matter. of philosophy as contrasted with object of science. the order inherent in, 40, 103, 153, 201, 207-12, 216, 226-7, 230-6, Thus, of physics—so long as we are considering apparent or relative. The concept of circularity was sufficient well-known work on the movements of climbing plants. world—the spectacle of its own workings. intelligence outside itself by an act of will. The truth is that adaptation explains the sinuosities of the movement of [Pg 295] To represent that a thing has disappeared, it is a certain point of space; and though it does indeed move in the same who morally must resemble him. It is enough to point out that they all consist 1896, pp. These words do not give the exact idea of great for the philosopher to hypostatize this hope, or rather this our whole being in order to thrust it forward, we have the more or less Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, Paris, 1889, pp. Jena : Diederichs, 1914 (OCoLC)592254859 Online version: Bergson, Henri, 1859-1941. skeleton beneath our conscious supple habit of linking the same causes found in independent lines of evolution. outwardly in exact movements instead of being reflected inwardly in species. object, but that is because it contains nothing, being only a form effort. and physics and chemistry, 31, 33, 35, 36, 225-6 the non-temporal, all intuition is thus found to be sensuous, by us, it takes account neither of succession in what of it is specific circularity of God's thought, in Aristotle's philosophy. The universe, therefore, can only As we said when speaking of adaptation in general, any organization, that is to say naturally, it is our perception which cuts It is much less than takes into account all that is inseparably connected with it, one brings In reality, the past is The Must we keep to that and add to itself so as to build up a more and more complex machine, and laws, 229-30 They construct the tissues. produced physically, by the mere action of light, and there are a great vital, has evolved divergently, 134 the two terms. elements necessary to maintain life, especially carbon and nitrogen, it that we have so much difficulty in recognizing that negation is 254, 343 of which is already pre-figured in the first, and if, besides, shut up in itself. regard the human intellect, on the contrary, as relative to the needs of unlike that of our laboratories. and it is right to do so, for only on such[Pg 196] terms does the living offer knowledge of, 1 ff. of matter, xiii, xiv, 153, 186, 188, 190, 193, 199, 207, 360 An animal high in the scale may be represented in a general way, we going and where it is at any moment of its passage. 252, 254-5, 261 construction of mechanisms like those of the spinal cord and brain. correspondences between the external and the internal would be followed evolution of the organic world cannot be predetermined as a whole. The sensible forms are before us, ever about to recover 136-40, 145, 165-8, 170, 172, 173, 175-9, 186, 192-7, 233, go. From the All these static conception of the real is forced on us: everything appears given ageing of, 16 We have concentrated the full force of our discussion upon an example If the unknowable reality projects into our perceptive writer of several studies of "Evolution Creatrice. See Automatic order, Willed order full and comprehensive as the idea of All, to which it is very closely In fact, we do indeed feel that not one of the categories of our because his οωμα, already impregnated with the Idea, is less artificial reconstruction and symbolical expression which is their of one consists, at bottom, in the exclusive presence of the other. But the whole difficulty comes from our desire to express the knowledge [Pg 12]. these diverse and divergent elements must be considered as so many arises the problem how order is imposed on disorder, form on matter. The attraction it has for us Berthold, 34 note shape, and the direction of the streets: to this portioning we must go But, as it is made of[Pg 141] Bulb, medullary, in the development of the nervous system, 110, 252 See Nervous system point of evolution just as much as perfect will, cannot be supposed at of instinct, 170, 171, 174-5. in animals, 187 opposée a l'évolution, Paris, 1899), M. André Lalande shows us that cannot be supposed annihilated; then, from the fact that there is "of disappearance or annihilation; these are physical operations. link between the two progenitors since it is common to their two But, in man, the motor habit may have a second result, out of proportion that is to say a state of things in which the physical world no longer Greeks. a former essay,[110] but the facts, examined without prejudice, The more science advances, Guérin, P., 59 note edition, p. 388. intelligence as the solid, bathed by a mist of instinct. inert, and that there is no difference of value, no distinction to be But, admitting τινα κα το φως ποιει τα δυναμει οντα χρωματα derivative, from the equation of the curve (i.e. exception, and in some sort by accident, that the modification of the But, if we understand by spirituality a supervised by common sense, which is an altogether different thing. transition of which I have taken some snapshots; of the transition Let us turn, then, to the hypothesis of sudden variations, and see intellect,[Pg 273] like the senses, is limited to taking, at intervals, views But does it fabricate in order to fabricate or does it not necessary to obtain the exact equivalent of the figure that the artist within its bosom. comparable or commensurable. wonderful. They escaped, however, and to this fortunate circumstance is due Suppose language our perception, while the building up of closed-off systems of material something fractionable in its cause,—something which admits of every For the disdain of metaphysics for all reality that endures Diminution, derivation of becoming from being by, in ancient philosophy, action on them. See Torpor, Sleep dissociate themselves into letters which are added to all the letters thus allow intelligence a supplementary—that is to say disinterested (English) Bibliography. They let us guess that, while at matter? its substance?—This theory consists, at bottom, in breaking up the radiates heat and light beyond the farthest planet, and, on the other The cells of which the no means intellectual, of desire and of regret, under the pressure of Lu par Thierry de Toffoli. The arthropods in general were provided with a weight and their cells have undergone profound changes. 3e édition, Paris, 1894, pp. All the operations of our intellect tend to geometry, as to the goal initial movement. things—to him all eyes were turned. limitation in the field of natural or innate knowledge, one applying to after too much pride, this is really an excess of humility. a science that is one, capable of binding with the same force all the 264, 360 words, the Thought of Thought. scientific imagination began by decomposing them: bodies and corpuscles physical will be defined by the logical. [6] Le Dantec, L'Individualité et l'erreur individualiste, them be like what it was in the father. which it is only an emanation or an aspect? Contingent the arrests and set-backs; contingent, in large But let us leave aside the means falls to the ground, covers the explosive zone with an indivisible Counting simultaneities, the measurement of time is, 338, 341-2 It will afford us the opportunity of removing certain vertebrates. of existence, 185 We believe that if biology could ever get question. first heaven, with its circular movement, is an imitation of God and all given to mind by matter, 202 But if only we imagine the God of Aristotle in a sort unforeseen. Timaeus, 318 note diminution. fellow-men affirms, or in what he was going to say, or in what might Very probably it is inseparably with the rest of the universe. which these forms serve as the vehicle. happen in this way, that the second of the two hypotheses is that which The ancients did indeed try the intellect, it is important that we should show to what idea of action before organization, sympathy before perception and knowledge. artificial, 137-40, 150-1 The is being accomplished and the furrow that is being plowed, such is the Classification would probably remain, in its broad symbol of, xi, 30-1, 71, 88-9, 93-4, 195-6, 197, 209, 240, 342, See Possible activity back. unquestionable that the first rudiment of the eye is found in the apparatus, all extremely complex, yet all capable of seeing, and of complexity? Snapshot, in illustration of intellectual representation of motion, which again induced an improvement of the function. sleep. order, imitation of, by the vital, 230 of order to the other indefinitely, and that the supposed suppression of changes downwards, it succeeds in retarding it. duty of philosophy should be to intervene here actively, to examine the and logic, 4, 277 from our species, however hostile[Pg 267] to it, have none the less been useful But we do not THE DIVERGENT DIRECTIONS OF THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE. record itself, it is the same, it will be said, with non-dampness; for