[3] After an exhibition of his work at the gallery of Ludwig Schames, in Frankfurt am Main, in October 1916, Kirchner sold many works and began to do well financially. This is a country in which democracy has become reality. „Die Brücke”). W wyniku tego doszło do rozłamu w grupie, a artysta ostatecznie z niej wystąpił. Jego głównym odnośnikiem były kolory. Z tego powodu sprzedał część prac zgromadzonych w Berlinie. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. Zachwycą Cię nasze niepowtarzalne dekoracje do domu - plakaty do salonu. [3] In 1929, [3], In 1923, Kirchner moved to the Wildboden house, writing in his diary: "Our new little house is a real joy to us. When you want to die, they sometimes appear to you. Főleg 1980-ban, születése 100. évfordulóján támadt fel az érdeklődés a művész gazdag életműve iránt. Am Abgrund der Zeit, Köln/London/Los Angeles/Madrid/Paris/Tokyo 2003. Sicht auf die Brücke, Bielefeld 2005. We shall live here comfortably and in great new order. Bleyl described it as "that of a real bohemian, full of paintings lying all over the place, drawings, books and artist’s materials — much more like an artist’s romantic lodgings than the home of a well-organised architecture student". [6], Kirchner's studio became a venue which overthrew social conventions to allow casual love-making and frequent nudity. „Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: Retrospektywa”. Following an architectural course in Dresden, he and his friends Fritz Bleyl, Erich Heckel and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff founded the artists society "Brücke" [bridge]. [3] Although Kirchner's parents encouraged his artistic career they also wanted him to complete his formal education so in 1901, he began studying architecture at the Königliche Technische Hochschule (royal technical university) of Dresden. [3] In 1913, his writing of Chronik der Brücke (Brücke chronicle) led to the ending of the group. Stan zdrowia Kirchnera uległ jednak pogorszeniu w wyniku obrażeń odniesionych w wyniku potrącenia przez samochód i w 1917 roku przeprowadził się do Davos w Szwajcarii. W zdobyciu szacunku w towarzystwie pomogły mu krytyczne recenzje własnych prac, które pisał skrywając się pod pseudonimem Louis de Marsalle. Der doppelte Kirchner. To use color as a medium to give the artist's feelings a language. [3] He finished some important pieces during the two month, such as "View of the Church in Monstein" and "Rising Moon in the Stafelalp". Posiada blisko 30 tysięcy prac (w tym kopie) i dokumentów związanych z życiem i twórczością Kirchnera. [3] Kirchner continued to experience depression, occasional pain and paralysis of his limbs but wrote in a more cheerful tone to Dr. Hagemann at the end of July: "I wish to remain in the world and for the world. [1][3] Three days later, Kirchner was laid to rest in the Waldfriedhof cemetery. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archiv in Wichtrach założone w 1979 roku w Campione d’Italia. As for the moderns, I saw damned little that gripped me". Everything must be put in clear order and the little house furnished as simply and modestly as possible, while still being beautiful and intimate". In most cases, work here has reached the ideal standard of being done with love. When I was leaving, I thought of Van Gogh’s fate and thought that it would be his as well, sooner or later. Painter, printmaker, sculptor. 15 czerwca 1938 koło Davos) – niemiecki malarz ekspresjonista i grafik, jeden z założycieli grupy „Most” (niem. Maier-Preusker W., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880-1938. I am so happy to be allowed to be here, and through hard work I should like to thank the people for the kindness they have shown me". ... As the woman with him rightly said, though many people want to help him, nobody is able to do so any longer. He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. [3] In the winter of 1935, a new school was being planned to be built in Frauenkirch and Kirchner offered to paint a mural. Through his fascination with the primitive and his belief that dancing put people in touch with their basic urges, dancing figures became a recurring theme in his work. Gemälde und Graphik der Sammlung Dr. Frédéric Bauer, Nürnberg 1952. W przypadku złamania umowy lub nawet najmniejszych ich naruszeń popadał szybko w gniew. W naszej ofercie znajdziesz oryginalne reprodukcje obrazów - reprodukcje dzieł wielkich mistrzów, tapety do kuchni. Wolf N., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner 1880-1938. [3] The house looked over Frauenkirch and the Stafelalp on one side and on the other, Davos and Kirchner used these landscapes as subjects for many of his paintings. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Self-Portrait of a Soldier (1915) was produced in response to the stress of World War I Born May 6, 1880 in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria, Ernst Ludwig was a prolific painter and printmaker who accepted the Expressionism label, and he was a founder and leader of Die Brücke. Po ukończeniu studiów Kirchner zdecydował, że nie będzie pracował w zawodzie architekta i rozpoczął nowe studia – malarstwo w Monachium. Ludwig Kirchner posiadał dwójkę młodszego rodzeństwa – Hansa i Ulricha. I was also glad to see the old pictures of Rembrandt, Dürer, etc. [3], In 1921, there was a major display of Kirchner's work in Berlin; the reviews were favourable. He made short explanatory remarks in a weary voice. Aby jeszcze bardziej przedstawić swoją osobę i twórczość w pozytywnym świetle Kirchner stosował również inne techniki kreowania własnego wizerunku. Od 1920 roku artysta zaczął jednak odnosić sukcesy artystyczne, a jego prace wystawiane były w muzeach Monachium, Hamburga i Nowego Jorku. Saehrendt Ch., Kirchners Heimholung. Podczas semestru zimowego 1903/1904 studiował na Uniwersytecie Technicznym w Monachium, ale nauka tam rozczarowała go. Latarnia Staberhuk z roku 1912. From then on, he committed himself to art. Służył jako kierowca. W lipcu 1937 roku został wykluczony bezapelacyjnie z Pruskiej Akademii Sztuki. And now it is supposed to be un-German. Lithographien. Podczas studiów w Dreźnie, wraz z trzema innymi studentami: Erichem Heckelem, Karlem Schmidtem-Rottluffem i Fritzem Bleylem, założył w 1905 roku grupę artystyczną „Die Brücke” („Most”). Frankfurt 2003. Die Kunstsammlungen Chemnitz zeigen E. L. Kirchners Deutschlandreise 1925/26, (w:) Neue Zürcher Zeitung 14. It is a terribly difficult thing, of course, to be among strangers so much of the day. His mature style was highly personal and notable for its psychological tension and eroticism. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) is one of the greatest German artists of the early twentieth century. Here a man’s word still counts, and you need have no fears about sleeping with your doors open. Kornfeld E.W., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. [2] In 1911, he moved to Berlin, where he founded a private art school, MIUM-Institut, in collaboration with Max Pechstein with the aim of promulgating "Moderner Unterricht im Malen" (modern teaching of painting). Dokumentarfilm, Deutschland, 2010, 26 Min., reżyseria: Barbara Dickenberger, produkcja: Hessischer Rundfunk, arte, Inhaltsangabe von ARD. [4] While in attendance, he became close friends with Fritz Bleyl, whom Kirchner met during the first term. Nina Hard would become an important model for Kirchner and would be featured in many of his works. Natomiast wyniósł korzyści z nauki w monachijskiej Debschitz-Schule. All prints, paintings and photos included in www.ErnstLudwigKirchner.org are provided as an affiliate to Art.com who hold necessary permissions. Posiada blisko 30 tysięcy prac (w tym kopie) i dokumentów związanych z życiem i twórczością Kirchnera. [3] Kirchner began creating designs for carpets which were then woven by Lise Gujer. Jego matką była Maria Elise z domu Franke (1851–1928), urodzona w Aschaffenburgu. [3], Kirchner continued to work through 1919 and 1920 as his health also rapidly improved. Także Dom Sztuki w Monachium, Muzeum Ludwig w Kolonii oraz Dom Sztuki w Zurychu przygotowały podobne wydarzenia kulturalne. Analytische Untersuchungen zur Werkstruktur, Gießen 1983. Kirchner był synem chemika i wykładowcy uniwersyteckiego Ernsta Kirchnera (1847–1921), specjalisty w zakresie przemysłu papierniczego, od 1892 roku profesora wyższej uczelni Technische Lehranstalt und Gewerbeakademie w Chemnitz. I found him sitting on a very low chair next to a small, hot stove in a yellow-painted, sloping-roofed attic. Na początku roku 1915 roku został przeniesiony do Halle, gdzie w wyniku dużego obciążenia fizycznego oraz dyscypliny załamał się nerwowo. Po ukończeniu gimnazjum w Chemnitz studiował architekturę na Uniwersytecie Technicznym w Dreźnie, którą ukończył w 1905 roku. The most moving was a self- portrait in uniform with his right hand cut off. Sonderbund) w 1913 roku Kirchner spisał kronikę „Mostu”, w której podkreślał znaczenie własnej osoby i twórczości dla tej grupy artystycznej. The Estate of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and their presence hold all necessary copyrights and licences for all of his paintings and other works. [3] Erna continued to live in the house until her death in 1945. [2] Between 1907 and 1911, he stayed during the summer at the Moritzburg lakes and on the island of Fehmarn (which he revisited until 1914) with other Brücke members; his work featured the female nude in natural settings. [3] In December 1926, Kirchner's close friend, Albert Müller, died of typhus along with his wife, Anni Müller. [10], Kirchner was then admitted to The Bellevue Sanatorium, run by Ludwig Binswanger, in Kreuzlingen where he continued to produce paintings and woodcuts. It does upset me". He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. Then he showed me his travel permit for Switzerland. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880–1938) is a very well-known painter. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Jego twórczość w czasach narodowego socjalizmu (nazizmu) w oczach władz nie przedstawiała żadnej wartości. A második világháború után rendeztek egyéni kiállításokat Kirchner munkáiból, a Svájcba magával vitt és az ott alkotott műveket háborús károsodás nem érte. Self-portrait, 1919. [3] In December, he suffered from a nervous breakdown and was admitted to Dr. Edel’s sanatorium in Berlin Charlottenburg. [3] He also writes "A Painter's Credo" where he states: "There is an intellectual guardianship over the world, it is man…. [2], In 1905, Kirchner, along with Bleyl and two other architecture students, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Erich Heckel, founded the artists group Die Brücke ("The Bridge"). Großstadt, Eros, Kultur, Bremen 2005. Together with me, he saw all his experiences drift by on canvas, the small, timid-looking woman set aside what we had seen and brought a bottle of wine. : transferred to The Museum of Modern Art and later The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum i New York. Przemalował na przykład część swoich starszych prac, a następnie antydatował je, by zasugerować, iż wyprzedził nurt fowizmu; wszystko po to, by wyprzeć się czerpania inspiracji z tego kierunku i artystów z nim związanych. [3] [3], Throughout 1936 and 1937, Kirchner began to experience health problems and was prescribed Ovaltine and Eukodal by his doctors. And that, in turn, ennobles the facial expression and imbues all personal contacts with a great delicacy. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (ur. Nazwa miała oddawać niechęć do establishmentu i panującą w grupie „rewolucyjną” atmosferę. Wypich E., Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: Gemälde 1911–1917. "[8], A group manifesto written by Kirchner in 1906 stated that "Everyone who reproduces, directly and without illusion, whatever he senses the urge to create, belongs to us". His reputation grew with several exhibitions in Germany and Switzerland in 1920. The Estate of Ernst Ludwig Kirchner and their presence hold all necessary copyrights and licences for all of his paintings and other works. Formation has a low priority, the figures appear partly rough. [6], Their group was one of the seminal ones which in due course had a major impact on the evolution of modern art in the 20th century and created the style of Expressionism. At the onset of the First World War in September 1914, Kirchner volunteered for military service. Jeszcze innym zabiegiem stosowanym przez artystę było organizowanie wystaw swoich dzieł. Dopiero w setną rocznicę urodzin artysty Stara Galeria Narodowa w Berlinie przygotowała wystawę pod tytułem „Retrospektywa – Ernst Kirchner 1880-1938”. Dodatkowo wspiera wystawy, a także publikacje mu poświęcone, Muzeum Kirchnera w Davos ufundowane zostało przez Norberta i Rosemarie Kettererów. [3] There was a major exhibition of Kirchner's work at the schoolhouse in Davos; the reviews were positive.[3]. from Feldhäusser's mother W Monachium styl Kirchnera stał się wyrazisty, dzięki śmielszemu operowaniu barwą, przypominający Gauguina oraz odważnym pociągnięciom pędzla, jak u van Gogha. [9], In September and October 1906, the first group exhibition was held, focused on the female nude, in the showroom of K.F.M. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (ur. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. Kirchner: first American retrospective exhibition of oils, watercolours, prints, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Cambridge, 08 Dec 1950–12 Jan 1951. Po udziale w wystawie Związku Specjalnego (niem. In July 1915 he was sent to Halle an der Saale to train as a driver in the reserve unit of the 75th Mansfeld Field Artillery Regiment. „Entartete Kunst”), mającej na celu zniesławienie artystów tworzących sztukę inną, niż akceptowana przez władze III Rzeszy. Placówki związane z Kirchnerem i jego twórczością, Strona miasta Davos na temat Ernsta Ludwiga Kirchnera, Strona Muzeum Bruecke poświęcona Kirchnerowi, https://pl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Ludwig_Kirchner&oldid=58555682, Absolwenci Uniwersytetu Technicznego w Dreźnie, Uczestnicy I wojny światowej (Cesarstwo Niemieckie), licencji Creative Commons: uznanie autorstwa, na tych samych warunkach, Korzystasz z Wikipedii tylko na własną odpowiedzialność, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Archiv in Wichtrach założone w 1979 roku w. Fundacja Ernsta Ludwiga Kirchnera w Davos stawia za swój cel utrzymanie oraz rozpowszechnianie wiedzy o dziełach Kirchnera, jak i o nim samym. It was a celebration with songs, dancing and speeches, followed by drinking such as I have not seen or experienced in decades...They made a point of including me and so there I was, sitting once again amongst these people who had received me with such kindness and friendliness on the alp twenty years ago. Najbardziej cenione dzieła Kirchnera powstały przed I wojną światową i w większości przedstawiają życie uliczne w Berlinie. Po zmianie miejsca zamieszkania jego sytuacja materialne uległa nieznacznemu polepszeniu. [3] To avoid being under constant watch, Kirchner moved to the Reusch Hut on the Stafelalp in the summer of 1917. After finishing his studies, however, he opposed his father's wishes and decided to become a painter. You can see it in the movements of their hands. Nachzeichnung seines Lebens. "[15], Female Nude with Foliage Shadows, 1905, Kirchner Museum Davos in Davos, Dancers, 1906, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Sitting Woman (Dodo), 1907, Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich, Dodo and her brother, c. 1908, Smith College Museum of Art, Nudes, ca. Die Studienjahre, die er nach dem Abitur in Chemnitz 1901 mit einem Architekturstudium an der Technische… Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art. [3] He was also visited in Frauenkirch by the painter Fritz Winter. [3] He then returned to Frauenkirch and wrote to Dr. Hageman on 26 March 1926: "Now I’m sitting quietly at home again and I’m happy to be able to work undisturbed. Grisebach L., Ernst Ludwig Kirchners Davoser Tagebuch, Ostfildern b. Stuttgart 1997. Lehmbruck and his contemporaries, Curt Valentin Gallery, New York, 24 Sep 1951–13 Oct 1951. Byl jedním ze čtveřice zakladatelů umělecké skupiny Die Brücke a její čelný představitel, během první světové války se dobrovolně přihlásil do armády, ale byl propuštěn. At this time, he established an individual identity with his first solo exhibition, which took place at the Essen Folkwang Museum. There is a war in the air. [6] They responded both to past artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (1880-1938) Selbstbildnis, 1925/26 (Autoportret) Öl auf Leinwand, 65 x 47 Slg. After Austria was annexed by Germany in the Anschluss, Kirchner became disturbed by the idea that Germany might invade Switzerland. [3], In 1925, Kirchner became close friends with fellow artist, Albert Müller and his family. Throughout 1938, Kirchner became increasingly upset with the situation in Germany. [2] During the next two years, he painted a series of "Straßenszenen" (street scenes) showing the streets of Berlin,[2] with the central characters of street walkers. [13] In 1992, the National Gallery of Art, Washington, held a monographic show, using its existing collection; a major international loan exhibition took place in 2003. Jego nazwisko było rozpoznawane w kręgu artystów. [3] In 1927, Kirchner organized a memorial exhibition for Albert Müller at the Kunsthalle Basel. [12] In 1921, U.S. museums began to acquire his work and did so increasingly thereafter. ... A colourfully painted curtain concealed a large collection of paintings. [3] Kirchner deeply resented this and did everything in his power to deceive the doctor: "Spengler didn’t know what to do with me, for my deception was totally alien to this excellent man’s way of thinking". Sensual, direct and dynamic, it defies all taboos. "Ernst Ludwig Kirchner: German, 1880–1938", "The Student Years of the Brücke and their Teachers", "Ernst Kirchner's Streetwalkers: Art, Luxury, and Immorality in Berlin, 1913–16", "The Artists' Association 'Brücke' – Chronology", "Reviewed by Cindy Helms in New York Journal of Books", Publications by and about Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Information on Kirchner and the German Expressionist movement, The German Expressionists and the 'Primitive', Illustrated Bibliography Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ernst_Ludwig_Kirchner&oldid=989388764, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SIKART identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 November 2020, at 18:13. [3] The Academy of Arts in Berlin expelled Kirchner as a member. This was not a success and closed the following year, when he also began a relationship with Erna Schilling that lasted the rest of his life.[2]. Kornhoff O., Studien zum bildhauerischen Werk von 'Brücke'. „Die Brücke”). Lucas Cranach the Elder, as well as contemporary international avant-garde movements. [3] In 1937, the Degenerate Art Exhibition took place in Germany; a total of 639 works by Kirchner were taken out of museums and 25 were displayed in the exhibition. again and to have the confirmation and encouragement they gave me. Noun 1. Kirchner continued to work in Frauenkirch, his style growing increasingly abstract. [6] As part of the affirmation of their national heritage, they revived older media, particularly woodcut prints. Po 1945 roku jedynie nieliczne prace Kirchnera były prezentowane w muzeach. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6. května 1880 – 15. června 1938) byl německý expresionistický malíř, grafik a sochař. To tam w roku 1916 wykonał pięć słynnych fresków. Nie mógł się on jednak czuć się pewnie. Od 1993 roku znajduje się w Wichtrach pod Bernem. [3] Reflecting on the inauguration of the schoolhouse in 1936 he writes, "the new school was inaugurated yesterday. [3] In a letter to Dr. Karl Hagemann, a friend and patron, Kirchner writes: "After lengthy struggles I now find myself here for a time to put my mind into some kind of order. Założone zostało w 1982 roku w celu finansowego wspierania, kolekcjonowania i ochrony dzieł artysty, a także naukowego opracowania jego spuścizny. [3], In 1934, Kirchner visited Berne and Zurich, finding the former more pleasing than the latter, and met Paul Klee. [3] He wrote of the house to Henry van de Velde: "I’m living in a beautiful old Grisons house with a kitchen that looks like Rembrandt’s studio". [3] Kirchner began writing critiques of his own art under the pseudonym of Louis de Marsalle in order to control public opinion of him and free himself of dependence upon the art critics of the day. This will really come to be a turning point of my life. [3] Kirchner continued to work and organised a major exhibit in Basle, which received mixed reviews. Kirchner was forced to distance himself from Rot-Blau after they pledged allegiance to him, which upset Kirchner greatly. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner wurde als Sohn des studierten Chemikers Ernst Kirchner (1847–1921), eines Fachmanns für industrielle Papierherstellung, ab 1892 Professor an der Technischen Lehranstalt und Gewerbeakademie in Chemnitz, und dessen Frau Maria Elise, geborene Franke (1851–1928), in Aschaffenburg geboren. [3] On 15 June 1938, Kirchner took his own life by gunshot in front of his home in Frauenkirch. [14] From 3 August to 10 November 2008, the Museum of Modern Art in New York held a major exhibition that "probably comprises the very best of his oeuvre. Tę stronę ostatnio edytowano 18 sty 2020, 03:48. 6 maja 1880 w Aschaffenburgu, zm. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner dealt with the increasing industrialisation in an artistic way. Kirchner became increasingly disturbed by the situation in Germany, writing: "Here we have been hearing terrible rumours about torture of the Jews, but it’s all surely untrue. Posiada blisko 30 tysięcy prac (w tym kopie) i dokumentuw związanyh z życiem i twurczością Kirhnera. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6. mai 1880 Aschaffenburg – 15. juuni 1938 Davos) oli saksa maalikunstnik, ekspressionist, üks saksa ekspressionistide rühmituse Die Brücke juhtivaid liikmeid.Tema on eelkõige tuntud ja tunnustatud oma teostel kujutatud erootiliste ja psühholoogiliselt pingeliste stseenide tõttu. Dube-Heynig A., Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig, Berlin 1977. Rok później Kirchner popełnił samobójstwo. [3] As Kirchner's father searched for a job, the family moved frequently and Kirchner attended schools in Frankfurt and Perlen until his father earned the position of Professor of Paper Sciences at the College of technology in Chemnitz, where Kirchner attended secondary school. I’m a little tired and sad about the situation up there. [3] Kirchner's first visit to Davos coincided with a spell of exceptionally cold weather and he returned to Berlin after a stay of only ten days. Towarzystwo Kirchnera w Davos jest organem współpracującym i wspierającym działalność Fundacji Ernsta Ludwiga Kirchnera. [3] In 1931, he was made a member of the Prussian Academy of Arts in Berlin. Jego pozycja awangardzisty została z biegiem czasu zagrożona w wyniku powstania kubizmu, choć i on sam przez pewien czas malował w tej manierze. You can thank them only through work. Obok szczegółowych opisów własnych dzieł i promocji własnego nazwiska stworzył on sobie przestrzeń darmowego rozpowszechniania reprodukcji własnych prac. Artyści skupieni w „Die Brücke” czerpali inspirację z dzieł wielkich poprzedników – van Gogha, Gauguina, Muncha oraz twórczości prymitywnych malarzy afrykańskich oraz twórców z wysp Pacyfiku. [1], Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was born in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria. Ich organizacja, a także sporządzanie umowy pomiędzy Kirchnerem a wystawcą nie należało do najłatwiejszych. [3], In 1913, the first public showing in the United States of Kirchner's work took place at the Armory Show, which was also the first major display of modern art in America. Delfs H., Kirchner, Schmidt-Rottluff, Nolde, Nay ... Briefe an den Sammler und Mäzen Carl Hagemann. W grudniu 1911 roku założył razem z Maxem Pechsteinem szkołę malarstwa – MUIM-Institut (MUIM – Nowoczesne Lekcje Malarstwa; niem. [3] Kirchner's father died on the 14 February. The high mountains here will help me". Ernst Ludwig Kirchner (6 May 1880 – 15 June 1938) was a German expressionist painter and printmaker and one of the founders of the artists group Die Brücke or "The Bridge", a key group leading to the foundation of Expressionism in 20th-century art.